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ERIC Number: EJ1125508
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Jan
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0162-3257
Parent-Endorsed Sex Differences in Toddlers with and without ASD: Utilizing the M-CHAT
Øien, Roald A.; Hart, Logan; Schjølberg, Synnve; Wall, Carla A.; Kim, Elizabeth S.; Nordahl-Hansen, Anders; Eisemann, Martin R.; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred R.; Shic, Frederick
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, v47 n1 p126-134 Jan 2017
Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen ("Trends Cogn Sci" 6(6):248-254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 females) with ASD, were examined. Results suggest a nuanced view of the "extreme male brain theory of autism." At an item level, almost every male versus female disadvantage in the broader population was consistent with M-CHAT vulnerabilities in ASD. However, controlling for total M-CHAT failures, this male disadvantage was more equivocal and many classically ASD-associated features were found more common in non-ASD. Within ASD, females showed relative strengths in joint attention, but impairments in imitation.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institutes of Health (DHHS); National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) (NIH); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Norway
Grant or Contract Numbers: N01ES75558; UO1NS04753701; UO1NS04753706A1; K01MH104739; R21MH103550