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ERIC Number: EJ1125113
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
Alternate Realities: Racially Disparate Discipline in Classrooms and Schools and Its Effects on Black and Brown Students
Martin, Jennifer L.; Sharp-Grier, Martina; Smith, Julia B.
Leadership and Research in Education, v3 n1 p16-33 2016
This study examines the Civil Rights Data Collection of 2014, consisting of 49,605,534 students from 95,635 public schools covering grades from Kindergarten to 12th grade. The primary focus of this study was to examine the relative distribution of different types of discipline between ethnic groups and genders. In every category, the levels reported for either African-American or Native American students were much higher than any other group. Native American levels were highest for referral to law enforcement and for expulsion with or without school services. For almost every gender comparison within each ethnic group, male students were more likely to receive punishment than female students. For Native American students, girls were more likely than boys to receive in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, expulsion either with or without educational services, and to be referred to law enforcement or experience school-related arrest.
Ohio Council of Professors of Educational Administration. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A