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ERIC Number: EJ1122199
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Dec
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1934-9491
Sticks, Stones, and Stigma: Student Bystander Behavior in Response to Hearing the Word "Retard"
Albert, Avery B.; Jacobs, Holly E.; Siperstein, Gary N.
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, v54 n6 p391-401 Dec 2016
The present study explored the prevalence of the r-word in schools and students' bystander behavior in response to hearing the word. In total, 2,297 students from 12 high schools across the country participated in this study. Results revealed the r-word was used frequently among high school students, most often toward individuals without intellectual disability (ID). Students were more likely to take an active bystander role when hearing the r-word used toward students with ID than when hearing it used toward students without ID. Students' gender and prosocialness also played a role in determining their bystander behavior in response to the r-word. This study has implications for reducing the use of the r-word and the stigma associated with ID.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. P.O. Box 1897, Lawrence, KS 66044-1897. Tel: 785-843-1235; Fax: 785-843-1274; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A