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ERIC Number: EJ1120103
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 7
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1085-3545
Is Group Therapy Democratic? Enduring Consequences of Outward Bound's Alignment with the Human Potential Movement. A Response to "How to Be Nice and Get What You Want: Structural Referents of "Self" and "Other" in Experiential Education as (Un)Democratic Practice."
Seaman, Jayson
Democracy & Education, v24 n2 Article 13 2016
Franklin Vernon provided an example of how programs viewing themselves as "cultural islands" are in fact embedded within historical capitalist relations, through the discourses of "self" that they promote. In this response, I expand on Vernon's argument to situate the quasi-therapeutic practices he identified in the history of the human potential movement, which effectively merged with Outward Bound starting in the 1960s and continues to define outdoor experiential education. Where Vernon sought the structural referents to different models of self, this response seeks their historical origins. The response concludes by linking Vernon's argument with existing critiques and parallel efforts in the literature on youth development and identity formation.
Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Education and Counseling. 0615 SW Palatine Hill Road MSC 93, Portland, OR 97219. Tel: 503-768-6054; Fax: 503-768-6053; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A