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ERIC Number: EJ1119709
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Nov
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
Comparing the Effectiveness of Virtual and Concrete Manipulatives to Teach Algebra to Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities
Satsangi, Rajiv; Bouck, Emily C.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Bofferding, Laura; Roberts, Carly A.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v39 n4 p240-253 Nov 2016
A sizable body of literature exists studying various technologies and pedagogical practices for teaching secondary mathematics curriculum to students with a learning disability in mathematics. However, with the growing footprint of computer-based technologies in today's classrooms, some areas of study, such as the use of virtual manipulatives, lack sufficient exploration. Although concrete manipulatives were studied for many decades for students with a learning disability and are considered a best practice, the research base for virtual manipulatives is notably less. With a specific focus on algebraic instruction, this study sought to compare the benefits of both forms of manipulatives to assist secondary students with a learning disability in mathematics to solve single-variable linear equations using a single-subject alternating treatment design. Over the course of 30 sessions of intervention, three students exhibited over 90% average accuracy solving problems using both virtual and concrete manipulatives, while the concrete manipulative earned higher scores for two of the three students.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A