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ERIC Number: EJ1119084
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Oct
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1092-4388
Towards a Theory of Learning for Naming Rehabilitation: Retrieval Practice and Spacing Effects
Middleton, Erica L.; Schwarts, Myrna F.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Traut, Hilary; Verkuilen, Jay
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, v59 n5 p1111-1122 Oct 2016
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine how different types of learning experiences affect naming impairment in aphasia. Methods: In 4 people with aphasia with naming impairment, we compared the benefits of naming treatment that emphasized "retrieval practice" (practice retrieving target names from long-term memory) with "errorless learning" (repetition training, which preempts retrieval practice) according to different schedules of learning. The design was within subjects. Items were administered for multiple training trials for retrieval practice or repetition in a "spaced" schedule (an item's trials were separated by multiple unrelated trials) or "massed" schedule (1 trial intervened between an item's trials). In the spaced condition, we studied 3 magnitudes of spacing to evaluate the impact of effortful retrieval during training on the ultimate benefits conferred by retrieval practice naming treatment. The primary outcome was performance on a retention test of naming after 1 day, with a follow-up test after 1 week. Results: Group analyses revealed that retrieval practice outperformed errorless learning, and spaced learning outperformed massed learning at retention test and at follow-up. Increases in spacing in the retrieval practice condition yielded more robust learning of retrieved information. Conclusion: This study delineates the importance of retrieval practice and spacing for treating naming impairment in aphasia.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 2200 Research Blvd #250, Rockville, MD 20850. Tel: 301-296-5700; Fax: 301-296-8580; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institutes of Health (DHHS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: R01DC000191; R03DC012426