NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1117686
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Nov
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1363-755X
Delayed Match Retrieval: A Novel Anticipation-Based Visual Working Memory Paradigm
Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Guillory, Sylvia B.; Blaser, Erik
Developmental Science, v19 n6 p892-900 Nov 2016
We tested 8- and 10-month-old infants' visual working memory (VWM) for object-location bindings--"what is where"--with a novel paradigm, Delayed Match Retrieval, that measured infants' anticipatory gaze responses (using a Tobii T120 eye tracker). In an inversion of Delayed-Match-to-Sample tasks and with inspiration from the game "Memory," in test trials, three face-down virtual "cards" were presented. Two flipped over sequentially (revealing, e.g. a swirl pattern and then a star), and then flipped back face-down. Next, the third card was flipped to reveal a match (e.g. a star) to one of the previously seen, now face-down cards. If infants looked to the location where the (now face-down) matching card had been shown, this was coded as a correct response. To encourage anticipatory looks, infants subsequently received a reward (a brief, engaging animation) presented at that location. Ten-month-old infants performed significantly above chance, showing that their VWM could hold object-location information for the two cards. Overall, 8-month-olds' performance was at chance, but they showed a robust learning trend. These results corroborate previous findings (Kaldy & Leslie, 2005; Oakes, Ross-Sheehy & Luck, 2006) and point to rapid development of VWM for object-location bindings. However, compared to previous paradigms that measure passive gaze responses to novelty, this paradigm presents a more challenging, ecologically relevant test of VWM, as it measures the ability to make online predictions and actively localize objects based on VWM. In addition, this paradigm can be readily scaled up to test toddlers or older children without significant modification.
Wiley-Blackwell. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148. Tel: 800-835-6770; Tel: 781-388-8598; Fax: 781-388-8232; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institutes of Health (DHHS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: 2R15EY017985