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ERIC Number: EJ1117391
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Nov
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1072-0502
How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?
Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.
Learning & Memory, v23 n11 p648-659 Nov 2016
Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When" ("WWW") episodic memory task involving the hiding and delayed recall of a number of items ("what") in different locations ("where") in temporally distinct sessions (when) and (2) unexpected tests probing memory for wider contextual information from the "WWW" task. Critically, some participants were informed that memory for "WWW" information would be subsequently probed (intentional group), while this came as a surprise for others (incidental group). The probing of contextual information came as a surprise for "all" participants. Participants also performed several measures of episodic and nonepisodic cognition from which common episodic and nonepisodic factors were extracted. Memory for target ("WWW") and contextual information was superior in the intentional group compared with the incidental group. Memory for target and contextual information was "unrelated" to factors of nonepisodic cognition, irrespective of encoding intentionality. In addition, memory for target information was "unrelated" to factors of episodic cognition. However, memory for wider contextual information was "related" to some factors of episodic cognition, and these relationships differed between the intentional and incidental groups. Our results lead us to propose the hypothesis that intentional encoding of episodic information increases the coherence of the representation of the context in which the episode took place. This hypothesis remains to be tested.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A