ERIC Number: EJ1116092
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Oct-6
Abstractor: As Provided
Where to Put the Manicules: A Theory of Expert Reading
Horning, Alice S.
Across the Disciplines, v8 n2 Oct 2011
Manicules are hand-drawn symbols used by medieval readers to mark important parts of a text. Knowing where to place manicules is one characteristic of an expert reader. A meta-cognitive theory of expert reading helps to account for what readers know that allows them to place manicules appropriately. This theory proposes that expert readers are meta-readers who have awarenesses and skills enabling them to read texts efficiently and effectively. The awarenesses of experts include meta-textual awareness of organization and structure, meta-contextual awareness of how the text fits into its discipline or area, and meta-linguistic awareness of the linguistic characteristics of the text such as specialized vocabulary. The skills of expert meta-readers include analysis of main ideas, details and other aspects of the substance of the points presented, synthesis of points in a single text or multiple texts on the same topic or issue, evaluation for authority, accuracy, currency, relevance and bias, and application or creation for the readers' own purposes. The theory, supported by a variety of research findings, helps to distinguish experts from novices; teachers can use specific intensive and extensive teaching techniques in any discipline to help novices learn to read well in order to place their manicules successfully.
Descriptors: Reading Strategies, Reading Skills, Metacognition, Orthographic Symbols, Metalinguistics, Theories, Expertise, Teaching Methods, Reading Instruction
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Tests/Questionnaires; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A