NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1115792
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0031-3831
Threats to Validity When Using Open-Ended Items in International Achievement Studies: Coding Responses to the PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Test in Finland
Arffman, Inga
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, v60 n6 p609-625 2016
Open-ended (OE) items are widely used to gather data on student performance in international achievement studies. However, several factors may threaten validity when using such items. This study examined Finnish coders' opinions about threats to validity when coding responses to OE items in the PISA 2012 problem-solving test. A total of 6 discussions during 6 coder practice sessions (on 6 OE items) and an interview between 5 coders were audiorecorded and analyzed by means of content analysis, and 3 main threats to validity were found: (1) unclear and complex questions; (2) arbitrary and illogical coding rubrics; and (3) unclear and ambiguous responses. Suggestions are given as to how to respond to these threats in order to improve the validity of international achievement studies.
Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Finland
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A