ERIC Number: EJ1114938
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Nov
Abstractor: As Provided
Using Systematic Classroom Observation to Explore Student Engagement as a Function of Teachers' Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) in Ethnically Diverse Pre-Kindergarten through Second-Grade Classrooms
Alford, Beverly L.; Rollins, Kayla B.; Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.
Early Childhood Education Journal, v44 n6 p623-635 Nov 2016
Researchers observed pre-kindergarten through second-grade public school classrooms, specifically noting child-centered and teacher-directed pedagogical approaches, by simultaneously examining: (a) student behavior and activities, (b) teacher instructional orientation and rationale, and (c) overall classroom environment. Dissimilar to previous studies, researchers noted the nature of activity structure and various student demographic variables. Additionally, unlike prior classroom observation studies that included an overwhelming percentage of white students, the current study was comprised of a large percentage of Hispanic and African American students. The findings revealed: little to no variation existed in the activities in which young children were engaged in their classrooms, nor in the instructional practices utilized by their early childhood teachers; however, three statistically significant findings showed: (a) students taught by teachers rated as having a higher developmentally appropriate instructional practices (DAIP) scores were more likely to be on-task and less likely to be off-task; (b) students taught by teachers with a higher DAIP score were more likely to be working kinesthetically, answering teacher-posed questions, and freely exploring; and (c) students taught by teachers with a lower DAIP score were more likely to be distracted and/or not engaging in activity. The findings are important, since young children continue to be taught in a direct instructional manner that focuses on students' test performance--despite research showing the unfavorable effects that highly teacher-centered, scripted classrooms have on young students' engagement and learning outcomes.
Descriptors: Public Schools, Observation, Kindergarten, Preschool Education, Grade 1, Grade 2, Student Behavior, Teaching Methods, Classroom Environment, Learning Activities, Student Characteristics, Hispanic American Students, African American Students, Preschool Teachers, Elementary School Teachers, Developmentally Appropriate Practices, Time on Task, Learner Engagement
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Preschool Education; Grade 1; Elementary Education; Grade 2
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A