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ERIC Number: EJ1114152
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1740-8989
Associations between Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Outcomes by Gender and Body Size Dissatisfaction during Fitness in High School Physical Education
Lodewyk, Ken R.; Sullivan, Philip
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, v21 n6 p603-615 2016
Background: Noteworthy proportions of adolescents--particularly females--report negatively about their experiences regarding fitness and the testing of it during physical education (PE). These accounts often coincide with lower levels of body image, fitness, motivation, and physical activity and higher rates of attrition from optional PE. Purpose: The aim of this study was to test path relations between body size dissatisfaction (BSD), test anxiety (TA), self-efficacy, and fitness-related outcomes during fitness in PE and to determine whether these differ as a function of gender and level of BSD. Method: Survey data were collected from 394 9th and 10th-grade students in southern Ontario, Canada. A previously validated BSD measure was used that consisted of a series of nine gender-specific silhouettes ranging from very thin/slender to very large/ overweight. Students' dissatisfaction score involved subtracting self-ratings of their ideal body size from current body size estimates. Fitness indices in PE (FIPE)was the z-score of the sum of self-reported fitness level, fitness grade in PE, and frequency of active exercise at least 30 minutes per day. Self-efficacy and TA were assessed using established scales from the "Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire." Data analysis: Multivariate analysis of variance was used to assess group differences whereas gender-specific confirmatory factor and path analyses were used to test the proposed path in which relations between BSD and FIPE were manifest indirectly through TA and self-efficacy. Findings: The hypothetical path fit the data in the overall sample and fit better for females than for males. Females reported a higher BSD and a lower self-efficacy and FIPE than males. BSD was evident in both genders with most females desiring a thinner body compared to boys who had relatively equal proportions wanting to be bigger and thinner. Males wanting to be smaller reported significantly lower self-efficacy and FIPE than males with little BSD or those wanting to be larger. Females desiring a thinner body reported significantly more TA and lower FIPE than females with no BSD. Conclusion: Body image concerns and elevated levels of anxiety appear to undergird the influence of self-efficacy on FIPE. This is particularly so in females, although both females and males with a BSD are susceptible to lowered fitness motivation and achievement in PE. Suggestions are provided to help physical educators to structure fitness curricula and pedagogy to better minimize this vulnerability. These include catering to the gender-specific needs and preferences for fitness activities during PE including the testing of fitness.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education; Grade 9; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Grade 10
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A