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ERIC Number: EJ1111586
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2007-Mar
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 130
Focus on Formative Feedback. Research Report. ETS RR-07-11
Shute, Valerie J.
ETS Research Report Series, Mar 2007
This paper reviews the corpus of research on feedback, with a particular focus on formative feedback--defined as information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner's thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learning. According to researchers in the area, formative feedback should be multidimensional, nonevaluative, supportive, timely, specific, credible, infrequent, and genuine (e.g., Brophy, 1981; Schwartz & White, 2000). Formative feedback is usually presented as information to a learner in response to some action on the learner's part. It comes in a variety of types (e.g., verification of response accuracy, explanation of the correct answer, hints, worked examples) and can be administered at various times during the learning process (e.g., immediately following an answer, after some period of time has elapsed). Finally, there are a number of variables that have been shown to interact with formative feedback's success at promoting learning (e.g., individual characteristics of the learner and aspects of the task). All of these issues will be discussed in this paper. This review concludes with a set of guidelines for generating formative feedback.
Descriptors: Formative Evaluation, Feedback (Response), Learning Processes, Instructional Effectiveness, Student Evaluation, Individual Differences, Goal Orientation, Learning Motivation, Task Analysis, Difficulty Level, Scaffolding (Teaching Technique), Time Factors (Learning), Models, Guidelines, Literature Reviews
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research; Information Analyses
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