NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1111532
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 22
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0957-8234
Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender
Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae
Journal of Educational Administration, v54 n6 p727-748 2016
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Findings: The results suggested that the nine-factor model provided the best fit for the data. Further examination revealed that most constructs lacked convergent validity and discriminant validity. Second-order factor models were tested and the hierarchical model with two higher order factors (i.e. transformational and transactional leadership) was deemed the best fit and it was then tested for measurement invariance between females and males. The measurement model was found to be invariant across gender. Findings suggested that female school principals demonstrated significantly greater transformational leadership behaviour, while male school principals demonstrated significantly greater transactional leadership behaviour. Originality/value: This study addressed construct and factor issues previously associated with the MLQ in the measurement of transformational and transactional leadership among a variety of organizations. By using a sample of K-12 school principals across gender, this study has provided support that may ameliorate contextual doubts of transformational leadership behaviour when examining the relational aspects needed to improve schools.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, West Yorkshire, BD16 1WA, UK. Tel: +44-1274-777700; Fax: +44-1274-785201; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Florida; Michigan; New York; Ohio; Texas
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A