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ERIC Number: EJ1111046
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Mar
Pages: 67
Abstractor: As Provided
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: EISSN-2330-8516
EISSN: N/A
An Investigation of the Impact of Composition Medium on the Quality of TOEFL Writing Scores. TOEFL® Research Report. RR-72. ETS RR-04-29
Wolfe, Edward W.; Manalo, Jonathan R.
ETS Research Report Series, Mar 2005
This study examined scores from 133,906 operationally scored Test of English as a Foreign Language™ (TOEFL®) essays to determine whether the choice of composition medium has any impact on score quality for subgroups of test-takers. Results of analyses demonstrate that (a) scores assigned to word-processed essays are slightly more reliable than scores assigned to handwritten essays and exhibit higher correlations with TOEFL multiple-choice subscores; (b) female test-takers, examinees whose native language is not based on a Roman/Cyrillic alphabet, and examinees with lower English proficiency are more likely to choose the handwriting medium; (c) the probability of choosing handwriting as the composition medium increases with age for Asian examinees, but decreases with age for most European examinees; and (d) examinees with lower TOEFL multiple-choice scores tend to have higher handwritten than word-processed essay scores, while examinees with higher TOEFL multiple-choice scores tend to have similar scores in either medium.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Test of English as a Foreign Language
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A