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ERIC Number: EJ1110317
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Aug
Pages: 27
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Cognition and Literacy in English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Latent Transition Analysis
Swanson, H. Lee; Kudo, Milagros; Guzman-Orth, Danielle
Journal of Educational Psychology, v108 n6 p830-856 Aug 2016
This study investigated the prevalence and stability of latent classes at risk for reading disabilities (RD) in elementary-aged children whose first language is Spanish. To this end, children (N = 489) in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of reading, vocabulary, and cognitive measures (short-term memory [STM], working memory [WM], rapid naming, random letter and number generation, and teacher ratings of inattention) in both Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Four important findings occurred. First, 4 latent classes emerged (nonbalanced bilinguals-good readers, balanced bilinguals-good readers, reading disabled, and classroom inattentive children) across all 3 testing waves. Second, probability estimates indicated that 23% of the total sample was at risk, and approximately 10% of the inattentive class transitioned into the RD risk class by Wave 3. Third, phonological process were primary predictive of latent classes at Wave 1, whereas working memory measures emerged as predictive at Waves 2 and 3. Finally, the best model for correctly predicting the odds of being correctly classified as RD at the final testing wave included measures of Spanish phonological processing, Spanish naming speed, English and Spanish oral language, English verbal WM, and visual-spatial WM. The results support the notion that statistically distinct and stable latent classes emerge under the umbrella of reading proficiency, and that children at risk for RD can be separated among a heterogeneous sample of children who are English language learners.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Conners Rating Scales; Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test; Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Raven Progressive Matrices; Wide Range Achievement Test; Woodcock Munoz Language Survey; Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324A090092