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ERIC Number: EJ1109374
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1358-684X
Reading/Literacy--For the Lower Orders? Part 2: From Defoe to the Coming of a Public Education
Dixon, John
Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education, v20 n2 p205-220 2013
The second part of this account of struggles over literacy begins in the later seventeenth century. From the 1670s, the new dissenting academies, backed by rising business classes, made teaching in English for a wider curriculum their goal. Thus was Defoe's mastery of a new spoken style developed, while in Scotland, the eighteenth century achievements of the Scottish Enlightenment heralded Modern Subjects. But the labouring peasantry and new urban working classes had to wait for revolutionary tribunes like Tom Paine and Cobbett to speak directly to them. Even then their prolonged struggles for a literacy in their own terms continued--and met a new setback, when the 1870 Act promised them universal education, but in tests dominated by Payment by Results. The struggles resumed. [For part 1, "Reading/Literacy--For the Lower Orders? Part 1: From Wycliff to the Seventeenth Century," see EJ1109375.]
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A