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ERIC Number: EJ1103371
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Jun
Pages: 36
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0002-8312
Are Flunkers Social Outcasts? A Multilevel Study of Grade Retention Effects on Same-Grade Friendships
Demanet, Jannick; Van Houtte, Mieke
American Educational Research Journal, v53 n3 p745-780 Jun 2016
We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school's proportion of retained students on these friendships and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel analyses on data from 11,759 students in 83 Flemish secondary schools show that secondary school retention is related to a lower number of friendships. Primary school retention is unrelated to friendship quantity in secondary education. Furthermore, students attending schools with a higher percentage of retained students have fewer same-grade friendships. The retention composition also moderates the effect of individual grade retention on the number of same-grade friendships. The implications are discussed.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Belgium
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A