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ERIC Number: EJ1103233
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Jun
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information
Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v42 n6 p914-924 Jun 2016
People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly overwhelming--information with the intent to maximize memory performance. Participants were presented with a long list of items and were rewarded for the number of correctly remembered words in a following free recall test. Critically, participants in a stop condition were provided with the option to stop the presentation of the remaining words at any time during the list, whereas participants in a control condition were presented with all items. Across 5 experiments, the authors found that participants tended to stop the presentation of the items to maximize the number of recalled items, but this decision ironically led to decreased memory performance relative to the control group. This pattern was consistent even after controlling for possible confounding factors (e.g., task demands). The results indicated a general, false belief that we can remember a larger number of items if we restrict the quantity of learning materials. These findings suggest people have an incomplete understanding of how we remember excessive amounts of information.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institute on Aging (DHHS/NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California (Los Angeles)
Grant or Contract Numbers: R01AG044335