ERIC Number: EJ1101682
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Abstractor: As Provided
Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life
Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, v21 n4 p407-424 2016
Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a major goal of Healthy people 2020. Grounded in the expectancy-value and achievement goal frameworks, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the perceptions of motivational climate in PE, expectancy-value beliefs, HRQOL, and PA among elementary children. A secondary purpose was to test whether expectancy-value beliefs mediate the relationship between motivational climate and HRQOL as well as between motivational climate and PA (self-reported PA and pedometer-based PA, respectively). Methods: Participants were 336 elementary children recruited from three public schools in the southeastern USA (M[subscript age] = 9.87; 179 girls, 157 boys). The majority of the participants (53.3%) were White students and the remainder (46.7%) including African-American (37.4%), Asian-American (1.5%), Hispanic-American (1.8%) and others (5.9%). Students completed a previously validated questionnaire assessing expectancy-related beliefs and task values toward PE. The 23-item pediatric QOL inventory generic core scale (PedsQL™ 4.0) was used to assess participants' HRQOL. Children's PA levels were assessed by using a self-reported survey (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children) and three-day pedometer counts (steps/min during PE). Analysis/Results: Correlational analyses showed that expectancy-related beliefs and task values were positively related to PA and HRQOL. Regression analyses indicated that both mastery and performance motivational climate had a positive effect on children's expectancy beliefs and task values. Mediational analyses were used to evaluate the potential mediational relationships among motivational climate (independent variables: mastery and performance climates), expectancy-value beliefs (mediator: expectancy-value beliefs), and HRQOL and PA (dependent variables: total HRQOL score, self-reported PA and steps/min), respectively. Conclusions: A mastery motivational climate together with high expectancy beliefs has a positive association with HRQOL, which in turn could produce health benefits in the future. Results suggest that a performance motivational climate could be associated with less activity (i.e. lower steps/min) even when students view PE as interesting, important, and useful. One important implication of the study is that by promoting mastery climates and expectancy-value beliefs in PE practitioners can encourage children to engage in PA both in and outside of school, and consequently may influence their quality of life.
Descriptors: Quality of Life, Motivation, Physical Activities, Physical Activity Level, Children, Physical Education, Child Health, Physical Health, Health Behavior, Health Promotion, Well Being, Elementary School Students, Public Schools, Beliefs, Questionnaires, Correlation, Regression (Statistics), Athletics, Team Sports, Student Motivation, Grade 4, Grade 5, Likert Scales, Predictor Variables, Reliability, Item Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, Public Health
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A