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ERIC Number: EJ1099057
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Jun
Pages: 30
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0013-1644
Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format
Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria
Educational and Psychological Measurement, v76 n3 p357-386 Jun 2016
Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale's dimensionality is of theoretical interest.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Beck Depression Inventory; Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A