ERIC Number: EJ1098492
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-May
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 47
Assessing the Writing Achievement of Young Struggling Writers: Application of Generalizability Theory
Graham, Steve; Hebert, Michael; Paige Sandbank, Michael; Harris, Karen R.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v39 n2 p72-82 May 2016
This study examined the number of writing samples needed to obtain a reliable estimate of young struggling writers' capabilities. It further assessed if performance in one genre was reflective of performance in other genres for these children. Second- and third-grade students (81 boys, 56 girls), who were identified as struggling writers in need of special assistance by their teacher and scored at the 25th percentile or lower on a norm-referenced story-writing test, wrote four compositions: a story, personal narrative, opinion essay, and informative text. Applying generalizability theory (G-theory), students' scores on three writing measures (total number of words [TNW], vocabulary diversity, and writing quality) for the four compositions were each portioned into variance due to the following sources: students, writing tasks, and the interaction between students and writing tasks. We found that 14, 8, and 11 compositions, respectively, would be needed to obtain a reliable estimate of these students' writing capabilities in terms of TNW, vocabulary diversity, and writing quality. Furthermore, how well these students wrote in one genre provided a weak prediction of how well they wrote in other genres.
Descriptors: Writing Achievement, Writing Difficulties, Writing (Composition), Norm Referenced Tests, Story Telling, Personal Narratives, Essays, Readability Formulas, At Risk Students, Literary Genres, Grade 2, Grade 3, Generalizability Theory, Student Writing Models, Scoring Formulas, Writing Tests, Writing Evaluation, Interviews
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 2; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 3
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: District of Columbia