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ERIC Number: EJ1094261
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0046-760X
American Cultural Diplomacy and Post-War Educational Reforms: James Bryant Conant's Mission to Italy in 1960
Mariuzzo, Andrea
History of Education, v45 n3 p352-371 2016
This paper, largely based on new, previously unused documents from US archives, considers the consultancy group financed by the Ford Foundation in 1960 to support the school reforms the Italian Minister of Education Giuseppe Medici was promoting. The group was headed by James Bryant Conant, and its evaluations were based on principles of "meritocratic" democratisation: universal access to comprehensive lower secondary school should have been accompanied by "cooling out" mechanisms at subsequent levels. Conant's suggestions were ignored. In 1962, the new "Scuola media" was established thanks to a compromise between the Christian Democrats and the Socialists, and was founded on uniform treatment and equal outcomes rather than equal starting points in competition. In spite of this, the Italian experience was subsequently used within the Ford Foundation to integrate Conant's ideas in their strategies for international programmes, and gave birth to planning studies for national education requirements based on manpower needs.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Italy; United States
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A