NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1092181
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Mar
Pages: 22
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0278-7393
Parafoveal Preprocessing of Word Initial Trigrams during Reading in Adults and Children
Pagán, Ascensión; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v42 n3 p411-432 Mar 2016
Although previous research has shown that letter position information for the first letter of a parafoveal word is encoded less flexibly than internal word beginning letters (Johnson, Perea & Rayner, 2007; White et al., 2008), it is not clear how positional encoding operates over the initial trigram in English. This experiment explored the preprocessing of letter identity and position information of a parafoveal word's initial trigram by adults and children using the boundary paradigm during normal sentence reading. Seven previews were generated: Identity ("captain"); transposed letter and substituted letter nonwords in Positions 1 and 2 ("acptain-imptain"); 1 and 3 ("pactain-gartain"), and 2 and 3 ("cpatain-cgotain"). Results showed a transposed letter effect (TLE) in Position 13 for gaze duration in the pretarget word; and TLE in Positions 12 and 23 but not in Position 13 in the target word for both adults and children. These findings suggest that children, similar to adults, extract letter identity and position information flexibly using a spatial coding mechanism; supporting isolated word recognition models such as SOLAR (Davis, 1999, 2010) and SERIOL (Whitney, 2001) models.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom (England)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A