ERIC Number: EJ1091805
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Frequency and Type of Reinstruction Strategies Used by Paraprofessionals and Licensed Teachers in Elementary Physical Education Settings
Hall, Amber M.; Larson, Jessyka; Heinemann, Angela; Brusseau, Timothy A.
Physical Educator, v72 n3 p433-444 2015
Unqualified paraprofessionals are teaching many elementary physical education (PE) programs around the United States. These teachers have neither the experience nor the education to provide quality instruction to students. Few researchers have identified the essential nature of teacher feedback in teaching motor skills, and it has been hypothesized teachers with little training may be less likely to give effective feedback to students. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and type of reinstruction strategies used by paraprofessionals and licensed teachers in elementary PE settings using a modified self-assessment feedback instrument (SAFI). Two licensed PE teachers and two paraprofessionals from the same school district in the western United States were observed four times using the SAFI tool. All 20 lessons were analyzed to understand the differences in the type and frequency of feedback between licensed PE teachers and paraprofessionals. ANOVA results indicate a significant difference between the type and frequency of feedback given by the groups. Overall, licensed teachers most commonly employed a constructive criticism strategy for providing feedback (43.6%), and paraprofessionals primarily engaged in behavior modification (75.1%). Additionally, licensed PE teachers gave more than twice as much feedback as paraprofessionals. These findings make clear the crucial nature of undergraduate PETE programs in providing licensed teachers with the skills and experience necessary to deliver appropriate feedback in elementary PE settings. Policy makers must be aware of the discrepancies between unqualified individuals and specialists to make the best policy decisions for students.
Descriptors: Physical Education, Paraprofessional School Personnel, Elementary School Teachers, Teaching Methods, Employment Qualifications, Professional Development, Observation, Teacher Evaluation, Feedback (Response), Statistical Analysis, Behavior Modification, Criticism, Teacher Certification
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A