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ERIC Number: EJ1091260
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Mar
Pages: 39
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1560-4292
SMILI?: A Framework for Interfaces to Learning Data in Open Learner Models, Learning Analytics and Related Fields
Bull, Susan; Kay, Judy
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, v26 n1 p293-331 Mar 2016
The SMILI? (Student Models that Invite the Learner In) Open Learner Model Framework was created to provide a coherent picture of the many and diverse forms of Open Learner Models (OLMs). The aim was for SMILI? to provide researchers with a systematic way to describe, compare and critique OLMs. We expected it to highlight those areas where there had been considerable OLM work, as well as those that had been neglected. However, we observed that SMILI? was not used in these ways. We now reflect on the reasons for this, and conclude that it has actually served a broader role in defining the notion of OLM and informing OLM design. Since the initial SMILI? paper, much has changed in technology-enhanced learning. Notably, learning technology has become far more pervasive, both in formal and lifelong learning. This provides huge, and still growing amounts of learning data. The fields of Learning Analytics (LA), Learning at Scale (L@S), Educational Data Mining (EDM) and Quantified Self (QS) have emerged. This paper argues that there has also been an important shift in the "nature" and "role" of learner models even within Artificial Intelligence in Education and Intelligent Tutoring Systems research. In light of these trends, and reflecting on the use of SMILI?, this paper presents a revised and simpler version of SMILI? alongside the original version. In both cases there are additional categories to encompass new trends, which can be applied, omitted or substituted as required. We now offer this as a guide for designers of interfaces for OLMs, learning analytics and related fields, and we highlight the areas where there is need for more research.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A