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ERIC Number: EJ1086241
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-2332-3205
The Effectiveness of Title I: Synthesis of National-Level Evidence from 1966 to 2013
Sousa, Sonia; Armor, David
Universal Journal of Educational Research, v4 n1 p205-311 2016
This paper reviews prior research to assess the effectiveness of Title I in closing the achievement gaps of disadvantaged students vis-à-vis their non-disadvantaged counterparts. A research synthesis approach is adopted to summarize national assessments of Title I conducted between 1966 and 2011. These analyses are supplemented by the authors' analysis of NAEP data from 1990 to 2013. There is no evidence that early Title I programs significantly reduced achievement gaps nationwide. Studies following NCLB implementation show modest closure of grade 4 gaps of about 0.2 of a standard deviation. Given the modest academic gains attributable to Title I, and considering that the program costs about $15 billion per year, the authors conclude that Title I programs have not been cost effective in closing the achievement gaps.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A