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ERIC Number: EJ1085580
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016-Feb
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
The Many Faces of Special Education within RTI Frameworks in the United States and Finland
Björn, Piia M.; Aro, Mikko T.; Koponen, Tuire K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas H.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v39 n1 p58-66 Feb 2016
Response to intervention (RTI) can be considered an everyday practice in many parts of the United States, whereas, in Finland, only recently has a new framework for support in learning taken shape. Choosing Finland as the comparative partner for this policy paper is justified as its educational system has been widely referenced on the basis of good Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results. The results of the present comparative article showed first, that the U.S. RTI was primarily intended for diagnosing and preventing learning disabilities whereas the Finnish RTI is mainly an administrative structure for support. Second, the U.S. RTI includes clear definitions regarding the intensity, duration, and content of support provided within each tier whereas the Finnish version contains no explicit guidelines for support. Third, the U.S. RTI assumes no special educational services in the first two tiers, but the Finnish framework includes special educational services from the onset of support. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Finland; United States
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education for All Handicapped Children Act; Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Program for International Student Assessment
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A