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ERIC Number: EJ1083339
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 52
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
A Longitudinal Examination of the Persistence of Late Emerging Reading Disabilities
Etmanskie, Jill M.; Partanen, Marita; Siegel, Linda S.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v49 n1 p21-35 Jan-Feb 2016
There are some children who encounter unexpected reading difficulties in the fourth grade. This phenomenon has been described as late emerging reading disabilities (LERD). Using Grade 4 as a starting point, this study examined the reading development of 964 children between kindergarten and Grade 7. The results showed that 72.0% of children had typical reading performance in Grade 4, whereas there was 0.7% with poor word reading, 12.6% with poor reading comprehension, 2.5% with poor word reading and comprehension, and 12.2% with borderline performance. We also showed that there were similar proportions of children who had early versus late emerging reading difficulties; however, most of the late emerging poor readers recovered by Grade 7. Furthermore, our study showed that poor comprehenders showed poorer performance than typical readers on word reading, pseudoword decoding, and spelling between Grade 1 and Grade 7 and poorer performance on a working memory task in kindergarten. Overall, this study showed that most children recover from late emerging reading problems and that working memory may be an early indicator for reading comprehension difficulties.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education; Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 1; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 5; Middle Schools; Grade 6; Grade 7; Junior High Schools; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada (Vancouver)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale; Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test; Wide Range Achievement Test; Woodcock Reading Mastery Test