ERIC Number: EJ1082843
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity
Brookhart, Susan M.
Educational Assessment, v20 n4 p268-296 2015
Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded achievement" reflects students' broad accomplishment of classroom and school learning goals, including goals about how to learn. Both high school and elementary grades contain information about school achievement that includes being socialized into the way learning happens in classrooms. Graded achievement reflects specific course learning goals and therefore varies according to subject; academic course grades align more closely with tested achievement than noncore course grades. Graded achievement also reflects individual teachers' grading practices and emphases about what is important to learn. Report card grades can be reliable and valid measures of graded achievement, but may not be depending on individual teachers' grading practices.
Descriptors: Grading, Academic Achievement, Grades (Scholastic), Testing, Educational Research, Research Methodology, Construct Validity, Educational Theories, Student Records, Elementary Secondary Education, Statistical Data, Educational History, Research Reports, Educational Practices, Scoring Formulas, Literature Reviews
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research; Information Analyses
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A