ERIC Number: EJ1081938
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 125
50(0) Years out and Counting: Native American Language Education and the Four Rs
McCarty, Teresa L.; Nicholas, Sheilah E.; Wyman, Leisy T.
International Multilingual Research Journal, v9 n4 p227-252 2015
Fifty years after the U.S. Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act (CRA), Native Americans continue to fight for the right "to remain an Indian" (Lomawaima & McCarty, 2006) against a backdrop of test-driven language policies that threaten to destabilize proven bilingual programs and violate hard-fought language rights protections such as the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992. In this article we focus on the "four Rs" of Indigenous language education--rights, resources, responsibilities, and reclamation--forefronting the inherent sovereignty of Indigenous peoples in language education decision making. Drawing on our work together and our individual long-term ethnographic work with Native American communities, we present three case studies that illuminate larger issues of language rights, resources, responsibilities, and reclamation as they are realized in these communities. We conclude by "reflecting forward" (Winn, 2014) on language education possibilities and tensions, 50 years out from passage of the CRA and more than 500 years out from the original Indigenous-colonial encounter.
Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Language Maintenance, Language Skill Attrition, Civil Rights Legislation, Federal Legislation, Ethnography, Case Studies, Civil Rights, Language Planning, Educational History, United States History, American Indian History
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Alaska; Arizona; New Mexico; Utah
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Civil Rights Act 1964