ERIC Number: EJ1081410
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Mapping Time-to-Contact and Time-to-Peak Effector Velocity in Interceptive Striking Tasks
Rothenberg-Cunningham, Alek; Newell, Karl M.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, v86 n4 p414-421 2015
Purpose: This study investigated perception and action coupling as reflected in a mapping between time-to-contact (TTC) and time-to-peak-velocity (TPV) for children and youths aged 7 to 8, 11 to 12, and 15 to 16 years old and adults aged 19 to 20 years old performing a task that allowed the participants to self-select the interception position in a baseball-like batting game on a graphics tablet. Method: The moving object to be hit for distance had curvilinear trajectories toward the hitter that were determined by simulated weightings of gravity and velocity. Results: Successful interceptions in all age groups were characterized by a mapping of mean TTC and TPV and a higher correlation of these variables with increasing age. The object was hit at approximately 90% TPV so that the implement was still accelerating on contact--an adaptive task feature for a striking distance criterion. Conclusion: The results are consistent with theories of perception--action coupling that are congruent with the ecological and dynamical approaches to action where TTC, a source of environmental information, is mapped relative to TPV, largely independent of the particular kinematic task demands of the approaching object. The organization of the coupling of TTC prior to TPV was evident across all age groups and is evidence for a common strategy for this type of interceptive action. The age-related changes in the strength of the relationship between TTC and TPV are evidence of increased sensitivity to the coupling between TTC and TPV.
Descriptors: Young Children, Early Adolescents, Adolescents, Young Adults, Perception, Age Differences, Predictor Variables, Multivariate Analysis, Handheld Devices, Statistical Analysis, Computer Software, Motor Reactions
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A