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ERIC Number: EJ1080800
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1528-5804
The Digital Divide in Students' Usage of Technology Tools: A Multilevel Analysis of the Role of Teacher Practices and Classroom Characteristics
Kim, Seung H.; Bagaka, Joshua
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education (CITE Journal), v5 n3-4 p318-329 2005
The study examined the role student, teacher/classroom, and school characteristics play on the "digital divide" in access and utilization of various technology tools among elementary school students. Survey data was collected from 1,027 fourth- and fifth-grade students in 48 classrooms in northeastern Ohio. A two-level hierarchical linear model (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002) was used to examine the extent to which teacher/classroom, school, and home variables can predict the average classroom usage of specific technology tools. Data analysis in this study by specific type of computer tools showed that, in general, students tend to use technology tools for individual/personal practices rather than for instructional activities. Students' usage of word processing, interactive, and productivity tools was significantly lower in schools located in urban and rural areas than those in suburban communities. The results also indicated that school location, school technological support, and teachers' beliefs about technology were significant predictors of the classroom student usage-gap of productivity tools between those who have and those who do not have access to computers at home. Teachers' level of experience was also found to relate significantly to the students' usage of computer tools.
Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education. P.O. Box 1545, Chesapeake, VA 23327. Tel: 757-366-5606; Fax: 703-997-8760; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Ohio
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A