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ERIC Number: EJ1079500
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: N/A
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-1559-5676
White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption
Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v32 n1 Spr 2008
Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to sixth graders from one elementary school in a large suburban school district, 324 boys and 314 girls. Pizza crust made with RW flour was served on two days; two weeks apart prior to serving the 50:50 blend pizza for four days at two week intervals. Liking rating forms were completed by 4th and 5th graders who had pizza on their trays. Plate waste was determined for each grade. Results: There was no difference in consumption for the 50:50 blend or the RW pizza crusts. Children in lower grades ate significantly less pizza than children in the sixth grade. For liking, there was no difference for pizza crust made with RW flour compared to pizza crust made with the 50:50 blend. Application to Child Nutrition Professionals: The pizza product made with a crust containing a 50:50 blend of WWW flour was as well accepted by children as pizza crust made entirely with RW flour. Substitution of WWW flour resulted in nearly a full serving of whole-grain in fifth and sixth grades.
School Nutrition Association. 120 Waterfront Street Suite 300, National Harbor, MD 20745. Tel: 301-686-3100; Fax: 301-686-3115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools; Grade 6
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A