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ERIC Number: EJ1079405
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Nov
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0012-1649
Infant Approach and Withdrawal in Response to a Goal Blockage: Its Antecedent Causes and Its Effect on Toddler Persistence
Lewis, Michael; Sullivan, Margaret W.; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung
Developmental Psychology, v51 n11 p1553-1563 Nov 2015
In 2 separate longitudinal studies, infants and their mothers were seen in 3 longitudinal visits. At 2 months, they were observed in free play where mothers' contingency toward their infants was obtained. At 5 months, a goal blockage response was produced when a previously learned contingent response became ineffective in producing an interesting event. Infants' emotional responses, in particular anger and sad facial expressions, were observed. At 2 years, toddlers' persistence at play was assessed by measuring children's responses to an interruption of their play. In both studies, the amount of toddlers' persistence was positively related to their anger response to the blocked goal at 5 months. Maternal contingency was not related either to infants' response to the blocked goal or to their persistence at play. These findings provide evidence for the contribution to and the consequences of infants' response to a goal blockage and the role of anger as an approach emotion.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH); National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS/NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire
Grant or Contract Numbers: 17205; 61778