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ERIC Number: EJ1079310
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2008
Pages: N/A
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 33
ISSN: EISSN-1559-5676
Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake
Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v32 n2 Fall 2008
Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain intake by children. Methods: A convenience sample included children in K-6th grade from two elementary schools in a Midwestern city. Whole red and white wheat flour content of buns and rolls served twice weekly was increased from 0% to 91% in 16 and 7 incremental levels, respectively over the school year. Red wheat products were served in one school and white wheat products in the other. Plate waste methods were used on a whole school basis to estimate consumption. ANOVA procedures were used to determine whether whole grain and modified bread product intake differed by level of whole wheat flour and menu entrée category. Results: Mean consumption of whole grain (g/child) increased as the level of red and white whole wheat flour increased in modified bread products. Consumption of modified bread products did not differ statistically from baseline (0% whole grain flour) until the 72% level for red and 67.5% level for white wheat was served. Consumption of buns and rolls varied with type of accompanying menu items regardless of wheat type or level. Application to Child Nutrition Professionals: A gradual increase in whole wheat content in menu items resulted in favorable whole grain consumption by children. This approach may allow school foodservice directors to gradually introduce acceptable whole grain products into school menus.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A