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ERIC Number: EJ1078933
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 31
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1814-9448
The Index of Pragmatic Uses and Functions of "Well" in University EFL Classroom Discourse: A Case Study in Iran
Mohammadi, Ali Mohammad; Nejadansari, Dariush; Youhanaee, Manijeh
Taiwan Journal of TESOL, v12 n2 p86-116 2015
Discourse markers (DMs) assist and persuade EFL classroom interlocutors to monitor their discourse production and comprehension process. This exploratory research investigated the index of pragmatic use (IPU), rate of use, frequency, and the pragmatic functions of "well" in Iranian university EFL teachers' and learners' classroom interactions. The researchers applied Jucker's (1997) inventory to explore the pragmatic functions of "well." The data was collected from four university EFL classes. The results revealed that the IPU was 72%, rate of use was 9.7%, and frequency of distribution was 0.98%. Compared with the London Lund corpus, the IPU and the rate of use were very low, but the frequency of occurrence was very high. The findings indicate the improper and unnatural pragmatic input offered in this EFL context. Also, the instances of "well" applied by the interactants in the monitoring of discourse comply with Jucker's index of functions in 90% of the cases by the teachers and in 65% by the students. They overused "well" as a face-threat mitigator, underused it as a frame, and the teachers' gender played no significant part. The insufficiency in IPU, rate of use, extra and excessive frequency, and imbalanced approach in pragmatic functions of "well" provide the evidence for reformulation in EFL education. Classroom discourse variables, i.e. teacher training, material production procedures, and classroom strategies and teaching methodology need to be directed in a way to provide chances for the teachers and the students to observe how native speakers apply "well" in authentic situations, underline its instances of use, and discuss its pragmatic functions in texts.
National Chengchi University Department of English. 64 Sec 2 ZhiNan Road, Wenshan District, Taipei 11605, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: 886-2-2938-7248; Fax: 886-2-2939-0510; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Iran
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A