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ERIC Number: EJ1074475
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Sep
Pages: 6
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Understanding the Relationship among Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Theories
Paik, Seoung-Hey
Journal of Chemical Education, v92 n9 p1484-1489 Sep 2015
Many studies suggest that students have difficulties in learning acid-base concepts. This study presents some conflicts in the textbook descriptions of these concepts and proposes these to be the cause of the students' difficulties. This is especially true regarding the description of the relationship among the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis concepts of acids and bases, which are represented schematically as a cumulatively developing figure. However, some reagents, such as NH[subscript 3], dry HCl, and H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], cannot be classified as acid or base according to these descriptions. A new relationship is suggested in this study based on the ontological category of scientific knowledge. Finally, it is suggested that all three concepts be taught for the purpose of understanding not only the concepts but also the developmental nature of scientific theories.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A