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ERIC Number: EJ1073645
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005
Pages: 17
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1499-6677
Exploring Instructional Design Factors Prompting Reflective Thinking in Young Adolescents
Song, Hae-Deok; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Grabowski, Barbara L.
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, v31 n2 Win 2005
Reflective thinking is important to young adolescents as they develop their thinking skills. Various instructional methods have been recommended to support reflective thinking, yet the nature of the underlying factors in these methods is unclear. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factors prompting reflective thinking. Results of this study suggest that young students perceived three clusters of methods as supporting their reflection: reflective learning environments, reflective teaching methods, and reflective scaffolding tools. A one-way within subjects ANOVA showed that the most helpful factor was the reflective learning environment, with the most helpful elements being freedom and collaboration. Students' perceptions of concept mapping and reflective question prompts were found to differ significantly across gender. Recommendations are provided for designing learning environments that prompt reflective thinking.
Canadian Network for Innovation in Education. 260 Dalhousie Street Suite 204, Ottawa, ON K1N 7E4, Canada. Tel: 613-241-0018; Fax: 613-241-0019; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: NCC5432