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ERIC Number: EJ1072573
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2010-Jan
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1940-5847
Comparison of the Frequency and Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Reinforcement Practices in Schools
Dad, Hukam; Ali, Riasat; Janjua, Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer; Shahzad, Saqib; Khan, Muhammad Saeed
Contemporary Issues in Education Research, v3 n1 p127-136 Jan 2010
The major purpose of the study was to compare the frequency and effectiveness of positive and negative reinforcement practices deployed by teachers in boys' and girls' secondary schools in urban and rural areas. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in use of reward and punishment by teachers in secondary schools in urban and rural areas with respect to their frequency and effectiveness. The results of this study brought out a clear picture of the reward and punishment practices being followed in schools, which may serve as a useful tool for improving these practices that influence development of students? desired behaviour. The population of the study comprised of the teachers serving in government secondary schools of Punjab. A sample of 1,000 teachers (200 from district Rawalpindi, 150 from district Attock, 200 from district Lahore, 150 from district Gujranwala, 150 from district Multan, and 150 from district Khanewal) was randomly selected in such a way that the proportion of rural and urban boys? and girls? secondary school teachers was evenly balanced. In order to collect data from sample teachers, a comprehensive questionnaire was developed and personally administered. The data obtained was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using appropriate descriptive and inferential tests of significance, such as one-way chi-square and two-way chi-square. The level of significance was 0.05. On the basis of results and discussion, it was concluded that the teachers of urban schools had better knowledge of using reward and punishment with respect to their frequency and effectiveness as well. There should be a countrywide program to train teachers according to the demands of the new era.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Pakistan
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A