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ERIC Number: EJ1070421
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2006
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1324-1486
Effects of a Five-Day Outward Bound Course on Female Students in Singapore
Keng, Chee; Wang, John; Liu, Woon Chia; Kahlid, Abdul
Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, v10 n2 p20-28 2006
It is commonly claimed that outdoor adventure programmes produce positive changes in participants by exposing them to adventure activities designed to encourage self-discovery and character building. Previous studies have focused on the impact of rehabilitative adventure therapy programmes and adventure education programmes for male dominated or co-ed environments, however little is known about girls' motivations for participating in adventure educational programmes and their associated outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a five-day Outward Bound course among young, female secondary students in Singapore. A total of 149 female students aged from 13 to 16 years from a single cohort took part in the study. Results showed that the course had positive impacts on the participants' social skills, interpersonal skills, leadership, and self-esteem. The effect sizes ranged from 0.24 to 0.64, which were consistent with the moderate change of previous outdoor programmes effect size research (Hattie, Marsh, Neill, & Richards, 1997). In addition, intrinsic motivation positively predicted participants' satisfaction level after the course. Overall, this study showed that outdoor adventure programmes can have a positive impact on adolescent Singaporean girls.
Outdoor Council of Australia. 150 Caxton Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia. Tel: +61-7-3369-9455; Fax: +61-7-3369-9355; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Singapore
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A