ERIC Number: EJ1069478
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Abstractor: As Provided
Critical and Creative Thinking as Learning Processes at Top-Ranking Chinese Middle Schools: Possibilities and Required Improvements
Liu, Z. K.; He, J.; Li, B.
High Ability Studies, v26 n1 p139-152 2015
Fostering and enabling critical and creative thinking of students is considered an important goal, and it is assumed that in particular, talented students have considerable potential for applying such high-level cognitive processes for learning in classrooms. However, Chinese students are often considered as rote learners, and that learning environments at Chinese schools will not allow thinking critically and creatively. The present exploratory study examines these assumptions with students at top-ranking middle schools in mainland China who have been selected for their high achievement scores in the examinations required for acceptance to such schools. Our findings in eight large mathematics classrooms (n = 381) strongly suggest that it is possible to acquire knowledge by thinking critically and creatively in these traditionally instructed classes, and that higher achieving students use such processes more intensively than lower achieving students. In addition, the study provides pathways for promoting these high-level cognitive processes for learning in particularly with lower achieving students. Finally, the results indicate that the extracurricular activities that are prescribed to all students at Chinese middle schools should be redesigned to offer more opportunities for critical and creative thinking.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Critical Thinking, Creative Thinking, Learning Processes, Middle School Students, High Achievement, Mathematics Education, Educational Environment, Extracurricular Activities, Comparative Analysis, Questionnaires
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: China
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A