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ERIC Number: EJ1069082
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 31
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0272-4316
Observations of Student Behavior in Nonclassroom Settings: A Multilevel Examination of Location, Density, and School Context
Cash, Anne H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.
Journal of Early Adolescence, v35 n5-6 p597-627 Jun-Aug 2015
Observational methods are increasingly used to assess the impact of school-based interventions. Yet, few studies have used observations in nonclassroom settings, such as hallways or the cafeteria, or explored aspects of the school context that may be related to the observed behavior. The current study used a multilevel approach to examine associations between observed rule violations and contextual predictors, including characteristics of observations (e.g., location and number of students present) and schools (e.g., perceived management, discipline referrals). Analyses were conducted on data from 37 elementary schools. Within schools, rates of physical and verbal violations varied by location and significantly higher rates of rule violations were observed in areas with high student density. Between schools, only a negative association for observed verbal violations and staff perceptions of the status of nonclassroom management systems was significant. The significance and relevance of these findings for both educators and applied researchers are discussed.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS); National Institute of Mental Health (DHHS/NIH); Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Maryland
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R49/CCR318627; 1U49CE 000728; K01CE001333-01; 1R01MH67948-1A; T32MH019545; R305A090307