ERIC Number: EJ1067965
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jul
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
Atypical PKCs in Memory Maintenance: The Roles of Feedback and Redundancy
Jalil, Sajiya J.; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Shouval, Harel Z.
Learning & Memory, v22 n7 p344-353 Jul 2015
Memories that last a lifetime are thought to be stored, at least in part, as persistent enhancement of the strength of particular synapses. The synaptic mechanism of these persistent changes, late long-term potentiation (L-LTP), depends on the state and number of specific synaptic proteins. Synaptic proteins, however, have limited dwell times due to molecular turnover and diffusion, leading to a fundamental question: how can this transient molecular machinery store memories lasting a lifetime? Because the persistent changes in efficacy are synapse-specific, the underlying molecular mechanisms must to a degree reside locally in synapses. Extensive experimental evidence points to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms as key components involved in memory maintenance. Furthermore, it is evident that establishing long-term memory requires new protein synthesis. However, a comprehensive model has not been developed describing how these components work to preserve synaptic efficacies over time. We propose a molecular model that can account for key empirical properties of L-LTP, including its protein synthesis dependence, dependence on aPKCs, and synapse-specificity. Simulations and empirical data suggest that either of the two aPKC subtypes in hippocampal neurons, PKM? and PKC?/?, can maintain L-LTP, making the system more robust. Given genetic compensation at the level of synthesis of these PKC subtypes as in knockout mice, this system is able to maintain L-LTP and memory when one of the pathways is eliminated.
Descriptors: Long Term Memory, Brain Hemisphere Functions, Neurological Organization, Maintenance, Models, Molecular Structure, Simulation, Neurology, Genetics, Animals, Research
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A