ERIC Number: EJ1067626
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jul
Abstractor: As Provided
The Negative Testing and Negative Generation Effects Are Eliminated by Delay
Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v41 n4 p1014-1025 Jul 2015
Although retrieval often enhances subsequent memory (the testing effect), a negative testing effect has recently been documented in which prior retrieval harms later recall compared with restudying. The negative testing effect was predicated on the negative generation effect and the item-specific-relational framework. The present experiments examine whether the negative testing effect persists over longer delays, whether the testing manipulation interacts with retention interval, and whether the negative testing and negative generation effects respond similarly to delay. Experiment 1 demonstrated a significant negative testing effect on an immediate free-recall test but not on a delayed test (after a 2-day retention interval). Furthermore, the retrieval condition produced less forgetting than the restudy condition. Under similar conditions (Experiment 2), generation likewise produced a negative effect on an immediate free-recall test but not after a 2-day delay. In addition, the generation condition produced less forgetting over 2 days than did the read condition. The results uncover important similarities between the mnemonic effects of retrieving information from episodic (testing effect) and semantic (generation effect) memory. The pattern of forgetting across delay also has relevance for accounts of the Testing × Retention interaction, a prominent phenomenon in the literature on the testing effect.
Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Testing, Study, Time, Retention (Psychology), Mnemonics, Memory, Undergraduate Students
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: North Carolina
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A