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ERIC Number: EJ1065988
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jul
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0012-1649
Classroom Norms of Bullying Alter the Degree to Which Children Defend in Response to Their Affective Empathy and Power
Peets, Kätlin; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Juvonen, Jaana; Salmivalli, Christina
Developmental Psychology, v51 n7 p913-920 Jul 2015
This study examined whether the degree to which bullying is normative in the classroom would moderate associations between "intra"- (cognitive and affective empathy, self-efficacy beliefs) and "inter"personal (popularity) factors and defending behavior. Participants were 6,708 third- to fifth-grade children (49% boys; M[subscript age] = 11 years) from 383 classrooms. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that children were more likely to defend in response to their affective empathy in classrooms with high levels of bullying. In addition, popular students were more likely to support victims in classrooms where bullying was associated with social costs. These findings highlight the importance of considering interactions among individual and contextual influences when trying to understand which factors facilitate versus inhibit children's inclinations to defend others.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 3; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade 5; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Finland
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A