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ERIC Number: EJ1064367
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Aug
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 77
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
Cognitive Strategies, Working Memory, and Growth in Word Problem Solving in Children with Math Difficulties
Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Catherine M.; Orosco, Michael J.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v48 n4 p339-358 Jul-Aug 2015
This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on word problem solving accuracy in children with (n = 100) and without (n = 92) math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grades 2 and 3 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: verbal-only strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), verbal + visual strategies, visual-only strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), or untreated control. Strategy interventions included 20 sessions in both Year 1 and Year 2. The intent-to-treat as well as the "as-treated" analyses showed that treatment effects were significantly moderated by WMC. In general, treatment outcomes were higher when WMC was set to a high rather than low level. When set to a relatively high WMC level, children with MD performed significantly better under visual-only strategy conditions and children without MD performed better under verbal + visual conditions when compared to control conditions.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 2; Primary Education; Elementary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 3
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Raven Progressive Matrices; Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324A090002