ERIC Number: EJ1062576
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jun
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 48
Is the Source of Reinforcement for Naming Multiple Conditioned Reinforcers for Observing Responses?
Longano, Jennifer M.; Greer, R. Douglas
Analysis of Verbal Behavior, v31 n1 p96-117 Jun 2015
Naming refers to the incidental acquisition of word-object relations as listener and speaker without explicit reinforcement. To investigate possible sources of reinforcement for naming, we examined the effects of a procedure for conditioning reinforcement for observing responses on the emergence of naming in children who previously lacked it. The participants were three 5- to 7-year-old children with and without diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder. During the intervention, either visual or auditory stimuli were first conditioned as reinforcers for observing responses. Then, neutral visual or auditory stimuli were paired with the conditioned visual or auditory stimuli until both visual and auditory stimuli acquired reinforcing properties for observing. Following this intervention, the participants demonstrated naming of stimuli that had been used in pretests for naming, as well as on a novel set of stimuli. We observed increases in echoic responding in conjunction with the emergence of naming and conditioned reinforcement for both observing responses. We interpret the data as suggesting that listener and speaker repertoires are joined for naming only when both visual and auditory stimuli reinforce the observing responses of looking and listening simultaneously.
Descriptors: Naming, Reinforcement, Conditioning, Responses, Young Children, Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Intervention, Visual Stimuli, Auditory Stimuli, Novelty (Stimulus Dimension), Listening Skills, Observation, Visual Perception, Auditory Perception, Attention
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A