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ERIC Number: EJ1061793
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: EISSN-1559-5676
School Nutrition Professionals' Usage and Perceptions of USDA Recipes and the Impact of Student Enrollment
Rushing, Keith; Johnson, J. T.
Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, v39 n1 Spr 2015
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of usage of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Recipes for Schools and investigate factors influencing their usage. The relationship between these variables and school district size (student enrollment) was also investigated. Methods: An expert panel convened to identify the major issues related to school nutrition (SN) professionals' preferences of USDA recipes for meeting the USDA meal pattern requirements. Findings were used to develop an online survey which was sent to a random sample of 2,100 SN directors, representing the seven USDA regions. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. Chi Square and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc tests were conducted to determine the relationship between research variables. Results: The response rate to the survey was 23.4% (N=511). The majority of SN directors (74.6%) indicated they used USDA recipes. District enrollment appeared to play a significant role in usage; as enrollment size increased, usage of USDA recipes significantly decreased (p<0.001). Most SN directors indicated that the USDA recipes adequately support participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), compliance with food based menu planning specifications, menu planning for meat items; and the skill level of SN staff. However, the majority of directors rated the USDA recipes unfavorably for participating in breakfast initiatives, menu planning for dark green vegetables, complying with sodium regulations, supporting budget constraints for food cost, or meeting the trends of today. Applications to Child Nutrition Professionals: Results of this study suggest the need for improvements to the USDA recipes. It is recommended that further research be conducted to identify ways of adapting the USDA recipes to better support the program needs of SN directors regardless of school district size.
School Nutrition Association. 120 Waterfront Street Suite 300, National Harbor, MD 20745. Tel: 301-686-3100; Fax: 301-686-3115; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Food and Nutrition Service (USDA)
Authoring Institution: N/A