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ERIC Number: EJ1061695
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jun
Pages: 40
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 85
ISSN: ISSN-0034-6543
Strategies for Teaching Students to Think Critically: A Meta-Analysis
Abrami, Philip C.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Waddington, David I.; Wade, C. Anne; Persson, Tonje
Review of Educational Research, v85 n2 p275-314 Jun 2015
Critical thinking (CT) is purposeful, self-regulatory judgment that results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanations of the considerations on which that judgment is based. This article summarizes the available empirical evidence on the impact of instruction on the development and enhancement of critical thinking skills and dispositions and student achievement. The review includes 341 effects sizes drawn from quasi- or true-experimental studies that used standardized measures of CT as outcome variables. The weighted random effects mean effect size (g+) was 0.30 (p < 0.001). The collection was heterogeneous (p < 0.001). Results demonstrate that there are effective strategies for teaching CT skills, both generic and content specific, and CT dispositions, at all educational levels and across all disciplinary areas. Notably, the opportunity for dialogue, the exposure of students to authentic or situated problems and examples, and mentoring had positive effects on CT skills.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research; Information Analyses
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Adult Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Cornell Critical Thinking Test; California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory; California Critical Thinking Skills Test (College); Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal